An executive agreement is an agreement between the United States government and another government or international organization that is made without the ratification of the Senate. Executive agreements are binding and have the same legal force as treaties. However, unlike treaties, executive agreements do not need to be approved by two-thirds of the Senate.
There are many examples of executive agreements that have been made by the United States government over the years. One example is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This agreement was signed by President George H.W. Bush in 1992 and went into effect on January 1, 1994. NAFTA is an agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico that eliminates tariffs and other trade barriers among the three countries.
Another example of an executive agreement is the Paris Agreement. This agreement was signed by President Barack Obama in 2015 and went into effect on November 4, 2016. The Paris Agreement is a global agreement among 195 countries to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Yet another example of an executive agreement is the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). This agreement was signed by President Barack Obama in 2015 and went into effect on January 16, 2016. The JCPOA is an agreement between the world`s major powers and Iran that limits Iran`s nuclear program in exchange for the lifting of economic sanctions.
Executive agreements have also been used to establish military alliances, to regulate air travel, and to provide aid to developing countries. One famous example is the Marshall Plan, which was an executive agreement signed by President Harry Truman in 1948. The Marshall Plan provided economic assistance to European countries in the aftermath of World War II.
In conclusion, executive agreements are an important tool for the United States government to make agreements with other countries and international organizations without the need for Senate ratification. The North American Free Trade Agreement, the Paris Agreement, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, and the Marshall Plan are just a few examples of executive agreements that have had a significant impact on U.S. foreign policy.